Television advertising and Agenda Setting Theory

The media is known to be a powerful communication tool in today’s society, particularly in the television advertising. However, the agenda setting theory by the media tells us what to think about particular issues including economic issues, social, science, politics, health and other issues that affect the society.

The Agenda-Setting theory proposes that it is always in a better position to shape various opinions in order to create a moral society. The agenda setting theory predicts that people will place importance on issues to which they are highly exposed or relevant to. The theory attempts to solve how public awareness and concern of important issues can be created by news media.

Theorists, Dr. Max McCombs and Dr. Donald Shaw were the first to build off these assumptions and develop it into a theory that is now known as Agenda-setting. Both professors have created a diagram explaining the algorithm of the agenda setting.

‘Dr. Max McCombs and Dr. Donald Shaw agenda setting algorithm’

This theory is intended to apply to the news media, although in certain cases it has been applied to other areas of the media and messages which they transmit to audiences. The theory also highlights the role of the media in various campaigns and its significant influence in educating the public.

Mass media forms an integral part of any society and plays an important role of spreading information. The Agenda-Setting describes a very powerful influence of the media as well the ability to tell us what issues are important.

More information about the agenda setting, The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media by Maxwell E. McCombs and Donald L. Shaw.


McCombs M. and Shaw D. (n.d.), The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media. Retrieved from

Quatro G. (30 Nov, 2014). Agenda-Setting Theory, Inter-Mediates. Retrieved from

Universiteit Twente. (n.d.), Mass Media, Agenda Setting Theory. Retrieved from




Hard News vs Soft News

Soft news is generally information that used for entertainment or human-interest stories. Hard News on the other hand is typically information that is concise and more in-depth news coverage.

Ideally when it comes to politics, war, economics and crime used to be considered hard news, while arts, entertainment and lifestyles were considered soft news.

We discuss two articles with the same topic written by two different journalists for the general public consumer. The subject matter was about the High Court challenge to Government’s postal poll vote.

ABC News article is a more professionally written report and includes concise information although it is relatively short. However, the Sydney Morning Hereld news consists mainly of the writer’s perspective and views from Mark Dreyfus himself. This could be considered hard news compared to ABC News.

Which is better? Everyone has a different perspective about the way we perceive information and how they interpret the content.  We discuss two articles with the same topic written by two different journalists for the general public consumer. The subject matter was about the parties challenging the validity of the postal survey argue the Turnbull government does not have the authority to appropriate the $122 million in funds for the vote. The difference between these two articles is their communication styles, how they are written, and their informativeness



Doran, M. (Aug 12, 2017). What Is the High Court Challenge to the Same-Sex Marriage Postal Poll All about?, ABC News, Retrieved by

M, James. (Aug 12, 2017). High Court Challenges to Same-Sex Marriage Survey a 50-50 Prospect: Mark Dreyfus. The Sydney Morning Herald, The Sydney Morning Herald, Retrieved on

Newman, N. (May 27, 2016).  Research Associate, Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism  and On. “Distinctions between Hard and Soft News.” Digital News Report, Retrieved on

Film and Sexism

Sexism in the movie and television industry is continuing to become more prevalent than never. According to Australian Council, Woman in Theatre (2012), recent studies shows women are however experiencing sexism through gender pay gaps, lack of recognition and reward.

Hollywood actress, Patricia Arquette’s is one of the few female actresses who have spoken out about discrimination in films. In last years Oscars acceptance speech and winning her supporting role in Boyhood, Patricia Arquette’s makes a statement about wage equality.

Patricia Arquette’s Oscars Speech

“To every woman who gave birth, to every taxpayer and citizen of this nation, we have fought for everybody else’s equal rights. It’s time to have wage equality once and for all. And equal rights for women in the United States of America,” she said.

However, it is evidently clear the the future for women in the media industry is looking positive, particularly with the recent success of female fronted features such as Hidden Figures and Wonder Women movie which is the highest budget film ever directed by a woman this year to date. Woman in the television and film industry is becoming popular and will continue to grow over the years.


Jennifer Lawrence Blasts Sexism in Film Industry (2015). ABC News, Retrieved from

Patricia Arquette Winning Best Supporting Actress (2015). YouTube, Retrieved from

Pearson, Georgina (2011). Gender Equality, a Huge Issue in the Australian Screen Industry. Mumbrella, Retrieved from

Women in theatre (2012). Australia council, Retrieved from

Post 5: Course Reflection

In partaking in the COMM11003 Communication in Professional Contexts, as one of the core subjects for my degree. During this course, it helped me gained a further insight in various means of communication between people and how it is applied in professional areas such as a workplace.

I can see improvements in my writing and research skill throughout my blog posts however, I hope to further improve upon this more.

I have enjoyed the challenges of learning different communication in professional contexts, including style, structure, grammar and punctuation. The course did present challenges at times. At some stage, I did struggle with the work load at times, due to the dates on many of my most recent post and the correct way of writing APA referencing.

In the end, the experience has been quite enlightening and I have without a doubt thoroughly enjoyed this blogging assessment task and what it had to offer.


Blog 4: What makes a good public speaker ?

Good public speaking skills are important in other areas of life. “Being a good public speaker can enhance your reputation, boost your self-confidence, and open up countless opportunities” (Mind Tools, n.d). Zeoli (n.d.) expresses people want to listen to someone who interesting, relaxed, and comfortable.

Strategies for becoming a Better Speaker: (Mind Tools, n.d.)

  • Plan Appropriately – The key to being a good public speaker is knowing your audience. To deliver a successful speech, it is to know what they want and what they need to know.
  • Practice – “Practice makes perfect!” It is the most obvious and most important step to delivering a great speech, it is to practice in advance.
  • Engage With Your Audience – By asking leading questions targeted to individuals or groups, will encourage people to participate and ask questions as well make the speakers speech memorable.
  • Pay Attention to Body Language – Standing up straight, taking deep breaths, using hand gestures, making eye contact and smiling will also help in making an effective speech as well sounding and looking a like a good public speaker.
  • Cope with Nerves – Drinking water or doing breathing exercises are some effective methods that will ease the nerves before delivering. By speaking slowly and taking pauses between sentences will allow the audience have a chance to digest what the speaker is saying.

For more information click here to visit Patil’s (2014) journal article on oral presentation skills .


Cenere, P., Gill, R., Lawson, C., & Lewis, M., (2015). Communication skills for business professionals. Port Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press

Mind Tools. (n.d.). Better Public Speaking: Becoming a Confident, Compelling Speaker. Communication Skills From Retrieved from

Patil, Z. (2014), Oral Presentation Skills for Prospective Business Executives, The Asian ESP Journal, Retrieved from

Zeoli, R. (n.d). Seven Principles of Effective Public Speaking. Retrieved from>.

Post 3: Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence, also commonly referred as EI or EQ (DiGirolamo, 2016) is an important quality to have, and as well as a valuable skill employers look for. To exercise emotional intelligence is to have ‘a comprehensive understanding of their own emotions and an ability to rapidly assess the emotional state of other members of the team’ (Savel & Munro 2016, p. 105). Dwyer (2016, as cited in Costigan, 2016) asserts that emotional intelligence is having the social awareness and skills to work effectively in different contexts. To exercise emotion intelligence, therefore, is not merely to be aware, but emphatic, to relate, and to adapt.

Daniel Goleman (2006, as cited in Kossen 2013, p. 354) describes key characteristics of emotional intelligence are:

  • Self-awareness– Your emotions and how it impacts others, being able to acknowledge your strengths and weaknesses (Costigan 2016).
  • Self-regulation– The ability to cope with change and deal with problems as they occur.
  • Self-motivation– The ability to persevere, and be self-motivated in trying to achieve goals
  • Empathy– Being able to understand and share the feelings of others (Costigan 2016).

‘Daniel Goleman Introduces Emotional Intelligence’

It is the ‘capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, as well as the ability to effectively manage our feelings as we interact with others’ (Doe, Ndinguri & Phipps 2015, p. 105).


Costigan, L. (2016), Lesson 10: Understand Yourself and Others, course notes, COMM11003: Communication in Professional Contexts, CQUniversity e-courses,

Doe, R, Endinguri, E, Phipps, S (2015), ‘Emotional Intelligence: The Link to Success and Failure of Leadership’, Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, vol. 19, issue 3, pp. 205-114.

Goleman, D. (2011), ‘They’ve taken emotional intelligence too far’, Time, November 1, Neff, KD & Vonk, R 2009, ‘Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: two different ways of relating to oneself’, Journal of Personality, vol 77, no. 1, February, 6494.2008.00537.x/full

Savel, R & Munro, C (2016), ‘Emotional Intelligence: For the Leader in us all’, American Journal of Critical Care, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 104-106

DiGirolamo, J. (2016), Emotional Intelligence Exercises,, viewed on 18 May 2016, from

Daniel Goleman. (2012). Daniel Goleman Introduces Emotional Intelligence. [Online Video]. 23 April 2012 Available from: [Accessed: 30 March 2017].

Blog 2: Technology and communication

How technology has impacted communication and example of how technology has influenced how you communicate.

Over the years, technology has been today’s necessity and it’s rapidly changing how we communicate. Communication is the exchanging of information through interaction either by speaking, writing or body-language. Eastman, Hayley, Ryan and Maddy (2014) discusses rise of technology communication that has evolved to the point of email, instant-messaging, audio/video calling (phone/skype) and other forms of social media that has diminished verbal communication. It operates as writing, talking and recording the sound, ideas or thoughts and giving pictures, symbol or text to other person (Cenere, P, Gill, R, Lawson, C & Lewis, M 2015). The reason that people would like to communicate together by message is because it requires the use of shorter words and it does not take long time to read, thus improving efficiency. People are comfortable reading and are able to easily understand what is exactly being said. Messages is used widely from children to adults (Cenere et al., 2015).

In many ways technology has greatly impacted and influenced the way I communicate with university lecturers and course co-ordinators by using email, online forums and phone calls.  The concept is effect and more convenient for distance students or students who work full time. Another great use of today’s technology is being able to stream lectures through smartphones, tablets or a computer. Technology has made learning so easy and readily for students, there’s almost no excuse for completing or submitting course work.


Cenere, P., Gill, R., Lawson, C., & Lewis, M., (2015). Communication skills for business professionals. Port Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press

Eastman, Hayley, R.N. Hernandez, and M. French. (2014). Communication Changes with Technology, Social Media. The Daily Universe. Retrieved from